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Analisi in inglese Daffodils

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH

DAFFODILS

– POEMS IN TWO VOLUMES –



Analisi in inglese


“I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud”, commonly known  as “Daffodils”, is a poem written by the English Romantic poet William Wordsworth in 1804 and published in 1807 in the collection “Poems, in Two Volumes”.

The lyric poem, one of the loveliest and most famous in the Wordsworth poetic production, is a clear example of Romantic poetry for its naturalistic theme: it depicts nature as a source of solace and delight for man, and shows Wordsworth’ conception of poetry as a memory of a vivid emotion.

The poem is written in four stanzas, each consisting of six lines of iambic tetrameter rhymed ABABCC. The use of iambic tetrameter gives gives the poem a wave motion that recalls swaying daffodils.

Main argument of the poem is the experience of beauty and delight transmitted by nature, whose memory pleases and comforts the poet even afterwards when he is in solitude.

The plot is extremely simple, depicting the poet’s discovery of a field of daffodils by a lake and his joy in remembering the lived experience.

Wordsworth arranges the content of the poem by focusing the first three stanzas on the experience at the lake and the last stanza on the memory of that experience.

The first stanza opens with a simile: the speaker compares himself to a cloud wandering lonely over valleys and hills pushed by the wind.

During his wandering, suddenly, the speaker arrives in front of a field of golden daffodils.

After introducing the circumstances of the discovery, the speaker describes, for the length of three stanzas, the daffodils and the nature around them.

Description strives to convey ideas of liveliness and vivacity, that the poet evokes through the cumulative effect of words suggesting:

– multitude: crowd, host, continuous, ten thousand,

– brightness: golden, stars, shine, twinkle, milky way, sparkling waves,

– movement: fluttering, dancing, breeze, tossing, sprightly dance, waves, danced

– joy: glee, gay, jocund.

The speaker describes the “dance” of daffodils with the word ‘sprightly’, which means lively, full of energy. But ‘spritely’ comes from the word ’sprite’, a Grecian literature’s fairy which inhabited nature; therefore is believable that the poet uses this word subtly, to describe the daffodils as lively, spirited fairies.

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Moreover, Wordsworth employs in this lines a brilliant reverse personification: the speaker is compared to a natural object, a cloud, and the daffodils are continually personified as human beings, a crowd, a multitude of dancers which “tossing their heads” in a joyful dance. In this reverse personification is reflected the idea of inherent unity between man and nature, which underlies to the ecstatic feelings described in the poem.

In the last stanza the scene changes: the speaker describes how, when he is in solitude, lying on his couch, the daffodils “flash” upon his imagination, bringing to him joy and delight.

This is the idea of remembering the beauty of nature even when not in its presence, that stands for an admired – typically Romantic – celebration of imagination that allows human beings to live vivid emotions even in memory.

Nor less “Romantic” is the celebration of “the bliss” of loneliness, which makes the voice of nature – otherwise scarcely audible – talk to memory and imagination.

In the matter of style and figures of speech:

– The poem begins with a simile, in which the speaker compares himself to a wandering lonely cloud.

– A second figure of comparison can be found in the comparison of the daffodils with the stars in the milky way.

– In numbering daffodils as “ten thousand”, Wordsworth uses the figure of hyperbole or exaggeration.

– Is common personification of the daffodils, described as if they were human capable of human feelings and actions such as jocundity and dancing.

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Analisi in inglese con traduzione interlineare


Per comodità di utilizzo dell’analisi di “Daffodils” di William Wordsworth, forniamo qui di seguito una traduzione letterale, periodo per periodo, del testo dell’analisi in inglese.


“I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud”, commonly known  as “Daffodils”, is a poem written by the English Romantic poet William Wordsworth in 1804 and published in 1807 in the collection “Poems, in Two Volumes”.

“I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” (ossia: “Vagavo solitario come una nuvola”), più nota come “Daffodils” (ossia: “Narcisi, giunchiglie”), è una poesia scritta dal poeta romantico inglese William Wordsworth nel 1804, e pubblicata nel 1807 nella raccolta “Poems, in Two Volumes” (ossia: “Poesie in due volume”).


The lyric poem, one of the loveliest and most famous in the Wordsworth poetic production, is a clear example of Romantic poetry for its naturalistic theme: it depicts nature as a source of solace and delight for man, and shows Wordsworth’ conception of poetry as a memory of a vivid emotion.

La lirica, una delle più belle e famose nella produzione poetica Wordsworth, è un chiaro esempio di poesia romantica per il suo tema naturalistico: essa raffigura la Natura come fonte di conforto e gioia per l’uomo, e suggerisce la concezione di Wordsworth della poesia come rievocazione di una vivida emozione.


The poem is written in four stanzas, each consisting of six lines of iambic tetrameter rhymed ABABCC. The use of iambic tetrameter gives gives the poem a wave motion that recalls swaying daffodils.

La poesia è organizzata in quattro strofe, ciascuna delle quali è composta da sei tetrametri giambici, rimati secondo lo schema ABABCC. L’impiego del tetrametro giambico conferisce alla poesia un andamento “ondulatorio” che richiama il movimento dei narcisi che oscillano mossi dal vento.


Main argument of the poem is the experience of beauty and delight transmitted by nature, whose memory pleases and comforts the poet even afterwards when he is in solitude.

Il tema principale della poesia è l’esperienza della bellezza e della gioia trasmesse dalla Natura, il cui ricordo delizia e conforta il poeta anche a distanza di tempo, quando egli si trova in solitudine.

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The plot is extremely simple, depicting the poet’s discovery of a field of daffodils by a lake and his joy in remembering the lived experience.

Lo svolgimento è estremamente semplice, e consiste nella descrizione della scoperta, da parte del poeta, di un campo di narcisi ai margini di un lago, e della gioia che egli prova nel ricordare l’esperienza vissuta.


Wordsworth arranges the content of the poem by focusing the first three stanzas on the experience at the lake and the last stanza on the memory of that experience.

Wordsworth organizza il contenuto della poesia dedicando le prime tre strofe al momento dell’esperienza al lago, e l’ultima strofa al ricordo di quell’esperienza.


The first stanza opens with a simile: the speaker compares himself to a cloud wandering lonely over valleys and hills pushed by the wind.

La prima strofa si apre con una similitudine: l’io lirico paragona se stesso ad una nuvola che vaga solitaria sopra valli e colline, spinta dal vento.


During his wandering, suddenly, the speaker arrives in front of a field of golden daffodils.

Durante il suo vagabondare, in maniera inaspettata, colui che parla giunge in vista di un campo di narcisi dorati.


After introducing the circumstances of the discovery, the speaker describes, for the length of three stanzas, the daffodils and the nature around them.

Dopo aver introdotto le circostanze della scoperta, l’io lirico descrive, nello spazio di tre strofe, i narcisi e la natura che li circonda.


Description strives to convey ideas of liveliness and vivacity, that the poet evokes through the cumulative effect of words suggesting:

– multitude: crowd, host, continuous, ten thousand,

– brightness: golden, stars, shine, twinkle, milky way, sparkling waves,

– movement: fluttering, dancing, breeze, tossing, sprightly dance, waves, danced

– joy: glee, gay, jocund.

La descrizione è tesa a veicolare idee di vitalità e vivacità, che il poeta trasmette grazie all’effetto combinato di parole che suggeriscono:

– moltitudine: crowd, host, continuous, ten thousand;

– bagliore: golden, stars, shine, twinkle, milky way, sparkling waves;

– movimento: fluttering, dancing, breeze, tossing, sprightly dance, waves, danced;

– gioia: glee, gay, jocund.


The speaker describes the “dance” of daffodils with the word ‘sprightly’, which means lively, full of energy. But ‘spritely’ comes from the word ’sprite’, a Grecian literature’s fairy which inhabited nature; therefore is believable that the poet uses this word subtly, to describe the daffodils as lively, spirited fairies.

L’io lirico descrive la “danza” dei narcisi con la parola ‘sprightly’, che significa “vivace”, “piena di vitalità”. Ma “spritely” deriva dalla parola “sprite”, uno spiritello della letteratura greca, abitante della natura; per cui è credibile che il poeta impieghi questa parola in maniera velata, per descrivere i narcisi come “vitali creature fatate”.


Moreover, Wordsworth employs in this lines a brilliant reverse personification: the speaker is compared to a natural object, a cloud, and the daffodils are continually personified as human beings, a crowd, a multitude of dancers which “tossing their heads” in a joyful dance.

Per giunta, Wordsworth applica in questi versi un’acuta personificazione invertita: l’io lirico viene paragonato ad un elemento della natura, una nuvola, mentre i narcisi vengono continuamente personificati come esseri umani: una folla, una moltitudine di danzatori, che “scuotono le loro teste” in una danza gioiosa.


In this reverse personification is reflected the idea of inherent unity between man and nature, which underlies to the ecstatic feelings described in the poem.

In questa personificazione invertita si riflette l’idea dell’unità intrinseca tra l’uomo e la natura, che sta alla base delle sensazioni di estasi descritte nella poesia.


In the last stanza the scene changes: the speaker describes how, when he is in solitude, lying on his couch, the daffodils “flash” upon his imagination, bringing to him joy and delight.

Nell’ultima strofa l’ambientazione cambia: l’io lirico descrive come, mentre è in solitudine, sdraiato sul suo divano, i narcisi riaffiorano di colpo sulla sua immaginazione, portandogli gioia e delizia.


This is the idea of remembering the beauty of nature even when not in its presence, that stands for an admired – typically Romantic – celebration of imagination that allows human beings to live vivid emotions even in memory.

Si tratta dell’idea del ricordare la bellezza della natura anche in assenza della natura stessa, che equivale ad una celebrazione ammirata – e tipicamente Romantica – dell’immaginazione, che permette agli esseri umani di vivere vivide emozioni anche semplicemente nel ricordo.


Nor less “Romantic” is the celebration of “the bliss” of loneliness, which makes the voice of nature – otherwise scarcely audible – talk to memory and imagination.

Né meno “romantica” è la celebrazione della “beatitudine” della solitudine, che fa sì che la voce della natura – altrimenti scarsamente udibile – parli al ricordo e all’immaginazione.


In the matter of style and figures of speech:

– The poem begins with a simile, in which the speaker compares himself to a wandering lonely cloud.

– A second figure of comparison can be found in the comparison of the daffodils with the stars in the milky way.

– In numbering daffodils as “ten thousand”, Wordsworth uses the figure of hyperbole or exaggeration.

– Is common personification of the daffodils, described as if they were human capable of human feelings and actions such as jocundity and dancing.

Sul fronte dello stile e delle figure retoriche:

– la poesia si apre con una similitudine, nella quale colui che parla paragona se stesso ad una nuvola che vaga solitaria.

– una seconda figura di paragone si incontra nell’accostamento tra i narcisi e le stelle della Via Lattea.

– nel riferire i narcisi come “dieci migliaia”, Wordsworth impiega la figura dell’iperbole (vale a dire un’esagerazione volontaria e mirata)

– ricorre la personificazione dei narcisi, rappresentati come se si trattasse di esseri umani capaci di sentimenti e atti umani come per esempio la gioia o il danzare.